ABS stands for anti-lock braking system. The system has many uses, including protecting the braking system from uneven wear and promoting better traction. ABS also helps the vehicle steer around obstacles when heavy braking is required. ABS is a delicate device, and disabling it may cause the car to sway. If this happens, it can cause the car to skid off the road and cause a fatal accident. To avoid such a scenario, manufacturers have implemented a system to prevent wheel-locking and maintain traction.
The mechanism of ABS works by pushing brake pads against the wheel disc, which stops the rotation. Speed sensors in the ABS ECU monitor the reduction in wheel rotation and send a signal to the electric control unit, which in turn partially releases the brake pads from the wheels. This enables the driver to maintain control over the car, even when the brakes are engaged. This system is mandatory for cars today. As long as the vehicle has ABS, insurance costs are low.
How ABS Works:
The CAB is another name for the anti-lock brake controller (Controller Anti-lock Brake).
A central electronic control unit (ECU), four wheel speed sensors, and at least two hydraulic valves inside the braking hydraulics are often included in ABS systems. The ECU continuously tracks the speed at which each wheel rotates. If it notices that a wheel is rotating significantly more slowly than the vehicle’s speed, a sign of impending wheel lock, it activates valves to reduce hydraulic pressure to the brake at the affected wheel, reducing the braking force therein, causing the wheel to rotate more quickly. In contrast, if the ECU notices a wheel turning noticeably more quickly than the rest, brake hydraulic pressure is increased to the wheel, reapplying braking power to the wheel and slowing it down. The driver can notice this process happening continuously by feeling the brake pedal pulse. Some anti-lock systems have the capacity to brake 15 times per second. Because of this, even during panic braking under harsh conditions, ABS-equipped vehicles’ wheels are almost impossible to lock.
Because the two wheels closest to the center of the curve rotate more slowly than the outer two when the automobile is turning, the ECU is configured to ignore variances in wheel rotative speed below a key threshold. A differential is utilized in almost all road-going vehicles for the same purpose.
A warning light will often illuminate on the instrument panel of the car if an ABS component develops a malfunction, and the ABS will be turned off until the problem is fixed.
Full-scale ABS: Full-scale ABS uses four channels to control the front and rear wheels independently, whereas three-channel ABS only monitors the front wheels. The ECU controls the hydraulic braking pressure evenly across all four wheels based on the road surface conditions. Full-scale ABS is more expensive, but its effectiveness is much higher than three-channel ABS. As a result, three-channel ABS is often fitted in cars because it saves money.
One-channel, one sensor ABS consists of a single valve and a single speed sensor in the rear axle. This is typical for pickup trucks. In the U.S., all new cars produced after 2012 must include four-wheel ABS. The ABS light on the dashboard will indicate if your car has one type or the other. These systems are not designed to monitor steering, but are necessary for preventing wheel lockup.
Three-phase ABS. The first stage involves releasing pressure in the brake system as the brakes are applied. Once this has been done, the controller sends a signal to release the valve and restore the pressure in the brakes. Several other stages follow, and the system is fully automated. The final phase, which involves restoring pressure to the brakes, is when ABS can recognize slippage and automatically adjust the braking pressure accordingly.
Four-channel ABS. This type is rare, but the system is more affordable than four-channel ABS. It uses separate sensors in the front wheels and a solenoid valve in the axle housing. This system uses a single sensor to monitor each wheel and thereby maintains traction. With the help of ABS, drivers can retain more control of the car. It works by releasing brake force when the wheels start locking.
Four-channel ABS. This type is the least expensive ABS, and works only on the wheel that is affected by sudden braking. Four-channel ABS works on all four wheels, and it is the most common in passenger cars in India. This type of ABS is the most common and effective among the three. It is mandatory to have ABS in passenger cars. There are many other benefits to having ABS on your vehicle. The three types of ABS differ, and the best choice is based on the car you have.